Adbusters: The Zine That Created The Occupy Movement

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It's a strange and delightful fact that the Occupy movement which began last month on Wall Street was not born on Twitter or Facebook or a blog. Rather, the idea emerged from a dusty print-based medium that almost nobody cares about anymore (or so we thought), a format that dates back to the days of Husker Du and Pagan Kennedy. Occupy Wall Street was born in a zine.

Adbusters was founded in Vancouver, Canada in 1989 by Kalle Lasn, an Estonian-born filmmaker outraged by the insidious and deceptively "warm" television commercials the timber industry was running in the Pacific Northwest to cover its destruction of vast areas of forest. Adbusters began using humor and parody to highlight and combat corporate and consumerist groupthink, and over the past two decades has staged many events and campaigns: TV commercials that mock other commercials, "open source" sneakers resembling existing sneaker brands, a "Buy Nothing Day" to combat holiday shopping mania, fake tickets to place on the windshields of SUVs. The zine became a staple of bookstore magazine shelves in the 1990s, sharing space with other worthy indie publications like Bitch, Giant Robot, Bust, Maximum Rock 'N' Roll, Craphound and Factsheet Five.

Like many other media jammers such as Julian Assange, Kalle Lasn is stronger on vision than on charisma, and likes to keep a low public profile. He occasionally appears on TV, and wrote a book, Culture Jam: The Uncooling of America, in 1999. Unlike other media organizations with less political conviction, Adbusters appears to be truly opposed to mainstream success, and has resisted the temptaion to dilute its message in search of greater popularity. But the organization's intrinsic hostility to media respectability has sometimes left curious newcomers confused about its program, and has given its opponents an easy opportunity to dismiss the (clearly honest) organization as extremist, Marxist, sympathetic to foreign influences.

This campaign has been sadly effective in tarnishing Adbusters' proud role in coming up with the original idea to occupy Wall Street (an idea, obviously, that had absolutely tremendous resonance). The Adbusters organization is well equipped to provoke, to satirize and to organize, but it does not seem well equipped to explain itself to the public at large. Predictably, some conservative news outlets are even cherry-picking critiques of Israel's policies from the vast Adbusters archives and attempting to portray the organization as anti-Jewish, though there is no basis for this charge at all.

A look back at Adbusters' intellectual roots points to the obvious influence of the Situationist International in the 1960s. This European-born movement, which emphasized satire, public provocation and street theatre over conventional political activism, culminated in the Paris riots of 1968, and fell apart a couple of years later. Another famous political activist inspired by Situationism was Malcolm McLaren, who founded the Sex Pistols with the intent of enraging his fellow Brits ("God Save the Queen", "Anarchy in the U.K.") in the mid-1970s. The Sex Pistols also fell apart soon after their first taste of success, and the inability of Situationist-inspired groups to stay together appears to be a real problem. The Adbusters organization has already shown itself to have far more longevity than its Paris or London predecessors, though Adbusters is currently reaching a greater peak of visibility than it ever has before, and must now be facing some of the hazards of vast, sudden popularity for the first time ever.

As provocative as Adbusters has been, its critique of consumerist conformity and corporate evil can be received not only as a political and activist message but also a personal and psychological one. How vulnerable are we all, really, to the advertisements and subliminal messages that bombard us from every direction? How can we make sure, when we rebel against society, that our rebellions haven't been mapped out in advance? This was the question at the heart of Dana Spiotta's novel Eat the Document, which portrayed a Starbucks-like corporation sneakily invading the minds of earnest young Seattle hipsters, and also of Jonathan Franzen's Freedom, in which a mining company schemed to gain support for a mountaintop removal program by selling it as a program for a bird sanctuary. Novels like Spiotta's and Franzen's help to remind us how deeply the political protests fought by movements like Occupy Wall Street and zines like Adbusters can cut into our private spaces, and how ambivalent the issues surrounding these protests can sometimes be.

The amazing public acclaim for the Occupy Wall Street movement, now known simply as the Occupy movement, is a testament to the creative thinking of a few individuals. If Lasn and his associates had not come up with this idea a few months ago, where would all these protesters be right now? And where would the important message of the protest be? It's a question that can really make your head spin, once you think about it hard enough.

The cover of Adbuster's second issue, from late 1989, is at the top of this page. Several early Adbusters covers (including the first issue -- I chose to show the second on the page because I like the artwork better) can be found in illustrator Cat Simril's archive.

This article is part of the series Occupy Wall Street. The next post in the series is Talkin' Occupy With Mickey Z. The previous post in the series is Occupy Wall Street: In Search of Honest Capitalism.
10 Responses to "Adbusters: The Zine That Created The Occupy Movement"

by Jason Diamond on

Not to take away from your great article, but I'm kinda shocked that this is the first piece I've read on Adbusters since OWS started up.

by Levi Asher on

I totally agree, Jason. I didn't even want to write this article -- I wanted to READ this article -- but nobody else seemed to be writing about Adbusters, so I had to do the research myself.

I think what's throwing everybody for a loop is that Adbusters isn't taking the opportunity to publicize itself. Media enterprises aren't used to giving each other attention. When a media enterprise has an opportunity to publicize itself and doesn't act on it, the result is a media vacuum.

by TKG on

Last week Reuters wrote about Adbusters (who get funds by George Soros funded groups) and Occupy.

Who's behind the Wall Street protests?.

A good Adbusters profile is here, and that link also links to their funding (more than a third of a million from the Soro's funded Tides Foundation and Center.

You mention Maximum Rock and Roll. Fun facts: My band was featured in the first two issues of it (0 and 1), with an interview in issue number 1. And just a couple years ago I was interviewed for a retrospective article in it on my old band. Tim Yo did right by me and I was sad to hear when he passed away.

by TKG on

"I wanted to READ this article -- but nobody else seemed to be writing about Adbusters, so I had to do the research myself."

You need to listen to Rush Limbaugh then or read conservative forums.

They of course have a different opinion on it, but the facts are the same.

by Levi Asher on

TKG, that's cool about your band! What was it called? Got a YouTube link of an old video to show?

About listening to Rush Limbaugh -- no thanks! He's one of the ones I was referring to who tries to claim that Adbusters is anti-semitic because they've made one or two comments about Israel in their 22 years of covering global politics. What a crock ...

by TKG on

Hi Levi,

Here's a link to my interview in MMR #300 a couple years ago.

We were definitely a culture jam type band. It's so funny to see all this now so many years later. I knew the guy who coined the phrase culture jamming from when we were teenagers.

My cynicism and even animosity toward occupy and occupiers doesn't come from ignorance or any sort of love or association for Wall Street. I've never been there or bought or traded stock ever (I wish I'd bought Microsoft in the 80's though).

L'aubergine est sur la plâte. Epater les bourgoisie! Les bourgois c'est l'occupiers.

by Mike Knippel on

this was known up here in british columbia, but like the beginnings of OWS, not publicized in the mainstream

by Matt Simmons on

Great article. I had been a subscriber to Adbusters for years after being introduced to it by a friend back in the mid-90's but let my subscription lapse a few years ago. To be honest, there was a brief moment back in Sept when the Occupy movement was just ramping up that Adbusters actually crossed my mind, but I quickly dismissed it. I had no idea, until reading this and the link to the Yahoo news article that the magazine was behind the movement.
Thanks for the enlightenment.

by Celestial Elf on

Adbusters are such an inspiration :D
Hoping to contribute to the consciousness raising underway and eventually achieve a cathartic critical mass…
thought you might like my machinima version of A Christmas Carol
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9SBebs3A5I

by Liza Bauer on

Long an Adbusters fan, but unlike a lot of OWS groups, Adbusters certainly has an agenda.

Adbusters does more than just send a message - it's quite possibly the only magazine/website that can capture you in both a visual and audible sense.

Adbusters has always been well-written with awesome illustrations, with prose to the point instead of mere epithets and protest sign wit.

The one thing I am missing are book tips, OWS novels - political novels? I've only read two: 'Spiritus Mundi', by Robert Shepperd, and 'A Party of One', (A. Longworth, no clue who that is), but that seems to be the one.

Aside from that, the mag's a winner. Hope it doesn't sell out.

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