An Unlikely Cocktail: Mixing Pop and Bourbon in the Palace of Versailles

French Postmodernism Visual Art

What do you get when you mix France's Bourbon tradition with Japanese Pop art in the Palace of Versailles? You get the newest scandal in the frequently scandalous world of contemporary art. Takashi Murakami’s exhibition at Versailles has not only stirred up controversy, but also provoked a lawsuit from the Prince Sixte Henri de Bourbon-Parme, a descendent of the Bourbon kings, in the name of “respecting the chateau and its ancestors.” M. de Bourbon-Parme claims that he’s not “against the modernity of art, but against a way of thinking that denatures and does French culture no good.”

Indeed, in some respects Murakami’s brand of pop art—which he calls “superflat”--couldn’t be more glaringly different from the Baroque splendor of Versailles. The palace embodies the triumphant power and control associated with Louis XIV, the Sun King, who instituted Versailles as the seat of French culture and monarchic power. By way of contrast, Murakami’s art couldn’t be more “plebian”. It’s influenced by Japanese comic books, turning pop culture motifs into greater-than-life, colorful and bizarre sculptures. One of Murakami’s most controversial piece, “My Lonesome Cowboy,” features a larger-than-life boy masturbating. This sculpture is absent from the Versailles exhibit. But the odd-looking pink teletubby perched on a globe of flowers (I don’t know how else to describe it) and the blond sexy maid in red high heels stick out like a sore thumb in Versailles’ majestic hallways and spectacular rooms.

Murakami himself attributes the scandal to “a misunderstanding” provoked by jealousy of his international success. Many of his sculptures sell for millions of dollars. In addition, the controversy generated by his art gives him the kind of international media coverage that many artists would have reason to envy. Ultimately, however, Murakami defends his Versailles exhibit in nobler terms, as a “face-off between the Baroque period and postwar Japan.” He hopes that this juxtaposition “will create in visitors a sort of shock, an aesthetic feeling.”

This sense of shock and aesthetic feeling is not altogether new. It reminds us of other notable exhibits which first shocked popular taste, only to be later embraced as the landmarks of Paris. When it was first erected in 1889 The Eiffel Tower caused a stir. Similarly, the Centre Georges Pompidou, which now houses the Museum of Modern Art, was viewed by many as an eyesore in the traditional Beaubourg area of Paris when it opened in 1977. Even I. M. Pei’s spectacular Louvre Pyramid from 1989 was initially met with mixed reviews.

Of course, those who object to Murakami’s exhibit will find some solace in the fact that it will not be a permanent feature of Paris (it only runs from September 14 to December 12, 2010). But the argument the artist makes is similar to those who view the role of modern art as provoking viewers and providing a sharp contrast to past artistic traditions rather than attempting to emulate them or to fit in with their styles. Personally, I think that the contrast between Versailles’ ornate Rococo style and the playfulness of Murakami’s pop sculptures isn’t as striking as it may seem. The flowery and colorful Japanese displays could be viewed as a contemporary version of Rococo’s over-the-top ornamentation.

Yet, in some respects, it’s the traditional context of Murakami’s Versailles exhibit that lends his pop art some element of surprise. I sure wouldn’t be shocked or even mildly surprised to find it in contemporary art galleries or museums! When I step into any contemporary art gallery or museum I expect to find pickled sharks, crap ready-mades (sometimes literally!) and all kinds of post-Warhol pop art. By way of contrast, as I mentioned in my previous essay on the lack of genuine artistic freedom, nothing would shock me more than to find more traditional art—in the Realistic or Romantic traditions—in a Museum of Contemporary Art or discussed in the art section of prominent magazines. Perhaps this is why I’d find surprising, unexpected and refreshing a kind of chiasmic reversal: walking through the traditional splendor of Versailles to pass by Murakami’s comic book sculptures and walking through the “cutting-edge” galleries and museums devoted to contemporary art to discover age-old traditions, a new Romanticism or Realism, rediscovered and renewed by contemporary artists for our times.

If this chiasmic reversal isn’t quite reciprocated, it’s because even though some people may vociferously complain about the newest fad in art, contemporary artists who aim to shock the public are in fact glorified and fetishized by the artistic establishment (by critics, the media and museums of contemporary art), while talented traditional contemporary artists are systematically ignored. Given this inherent bias in the artistic establishment, pretty soon the “cutting-edge” art that’s supposed to shock and stir in us “aesthetic feelings” will be greeted by the public with a big yawn.

10 Responses to "An Unlikely Cocktail: Mixing Pop and Bourbon in the Palace of Versailles"

by Gary Jenkins on

Claudia, I agree with most of your comments but I still don't like Murakami’s exhibition in Versailles. It is ridiculously out of place. I can conceive that some people like Murakami and want to see his art, but why put it there? People who go to Versailles want to see the chateau and his masterpieces, not so-called contemporary Japanese art!.

by D. R. Popa on

These kind of exhibitions should aim to enable a dialog. In our case a dialog between the unique setting, which is the Chateau of Versailles, and the questionable pop art of Takashi Murakami. Alas, there are only parallel monologues and an overall feeling of some oxymoronic combination. The same was true for the 2008 Jeff Koon's retrospective shown at the Chateau. I think that Laurent Le Bon, the curator, should look elsewhere if he really wants "to spark a reflection on the contemporary nature of our monuments and the indispensable need to create our own era".

I like the playful teletubby thing in the hallowed halls. Let's face it, Versailles is pompous with a capital P. I like Versailles and I have been there many times, but its size and scale were built to say 'I am the greatest man on the planet'. It needs a good send up.

by Claudia on

Michael, since you mention Versailles needed some lightening up, I couldn't agree with you more. We lost sight of what Rococo was about. Unfortunately, now it's seen as a dead and pompous movement in the pages of art history. Originally, however, the Rococo movement was about having fun celebrating life's pleasures (at least for the aristocracy). To show just how light-hearted the Rococo style of Versailles was, a postromantic artist and I have made a video on youtube about François Boucher, one of the main court painters. So... vive le Rococo! You can find our tribute video on the link below:

http://www.youtube.com/user/cmartpedia#p/a/u/0/in1wwAGmgEM

Claudia -

I like the Boucher video! His work makes me think of Reubens with a lighter touch. I'm thinking about the room in the Louvre that has the Reubens paintings of the life of Marie de Medici - very sensual, yet mind-blowing when seen all at once. Reubens was in the earlier Baroque style but you can see the transition when you look at the Boucher paintings.

Vienna is a good city for Rococo (and Baroque) architecture. I agree - vive le Rococo.

by Robbie on

Claudia, I agree with what you say about the playfulness of the Rococo style and enjoyed watching your art video. As for the Japanese pop art exhibit, the French have a saying about that:
"Plus ça change, plus ça reste la même chose."

by Claudia on

Michael, thanks for your comment about Rococo. I'm hoping that even those who don't appreciate this style of art the way you and I do--or other styles in art history, for that matter--will like it better if it's presented in a more entertaining, modern and engaging manner. Which is why--to address Gary's comment--I felt that putting Murakami in Versailles wasn't necessarily a bad move. To offer one analogy, my daughter likes classical music because it's often played in movies and cartoons, not because we take her to the symphony (where she gets bored).

by Leonardo on

I agree, there is a general lack of genuine artistic freedom right now, and Takashi Murakami had nothing to do in the French palace!

A very good article!

by steph niko on

Perhaps more shocking would be rococo art thrown into a space designated for contemporary art. Perhaps outside of its usual context, we would see it anew.

by Claudia on

Steph, I love your idea! That's exactly what the contemporary artistic establishment needs: a shake-up from the past. It seems like in pop culture, Lady Gaga has the right idea with using over-the-top
Rococo fashions to her benefit.

Add new comment